Characterization of subsurface materials almost always requires the measurement of multiple physical parameters, and therefore involves multiple geophysical surveys. The integration of the multiple data sets is the key to detailed interpretations. Following this logic, the key elements of a near-surface survey become the ability to make multiple precise survey measurements and integrate them. Technological developments in precise positioning, data logging, and GIS data manipulation provide the potential for major advances in near-surface surveys in both areas.

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