Geophysical surveying methods have expanded to address the issues associated with assessing near-surface conditions of oil fields and detection and imaging of sinkholes. Continual high demand for mineral resources to meet the growing need for energy and water have impacted the environment in many visible and not so visible ways. Resource extraction from the Earth usually results in ground subsidence and/or cavities. Over time, subsurface cavities may increase in size due to dissolution or erosion and could migrate upward to the surface.

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