The success of engineered remediation is predicated on correct emplacement of either amendments (e.g., vegetable-oil emulsion, lactate, molasses, etc.) or permeable reactive barriers (e.g., vegetable oil, zero-valent iron, etc.) to enhance microbial or geochemical breakdown of contaminants and treat contaminants. Currently, site managers have limited tools to provide information about the distribution of injected materials; the existence of gaps or holes in barriers; and breakdown or transformation of injected materials over time.

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