Images from walkaway VSP data are traditionally obtained by using either a VSP-CDP transform or a VSP Kirchhoff migration, which both heavily rely on the knowledge of a velocity model. The need for a velocity model is eliminated by using model-independent imaging methods, such as the common-reflection-surface (CRS) stack. The CRS stack is a data-driven time-domain stacking method that leads to images with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, kinematic wavefield attributes (CRS attributes) determined in the process can be used for a variety of applications.

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