Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has occupied its Livermore, California (USA) site since 1952. Over the years, activities at the lab have released a variety of pollutants into the subsurface, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), metals, pesticides, gasoline, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. Earlier occupation of the site by the U.S. Navy (in the 1940s) also resulted in hazardous waste, including cleaning solvents. Since the 1980s, environmental characterization and cleanup at the Livermore site have addressed the impact of these pollutants and enhanced the safety of drinking water in the vicinity.

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