Spurred by advances in instrumentation and acquisition technologies, including processing and interpretation software of geophysical data over the past decade, CNPC and PetroChina have developed integrated geophysical exploration technologies for five different applications: rugged terrain and complicated subsurface structures, deeply buried paleotopographic hill structures, volcanic rocks, direct hydrocarbon detection at shallow-to-medium depths, and reservoir characterization and fluid monitoring. These will be discussed in more detail later in conjunction with six case studies, listed below, that demonstrate their application. The numbers correspond to the geographic locations indicated by the same number in Figure 1.

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