Bubbling mud volcanoes create havoc for conventional seismic images over the crest of the Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli (ACG) structure in the Caspian Sea. Layers of trapped gas and shallow mud flows in the overburden sediments leave areas of severely degraded data quality at the crest of the reservoir structure. Fortunately, in 2002, the application of the first 3D four-component (3D/4-C) seismic in the Caspian has helped lift the veil of mud and gas attenuation which previously obscured the details of the subsurface reservoir.

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