Typically, a synthetic seismogram calculation involves only reflection coefficients. This is the standard practice, but there are published accounts of the important role of internal multiples and transmission effects. It was known by 1960 that internal multiples can set up interference patterns that complicate any effort to associate geologic horizons with specific seismic events. In such cases the best solution is VSP analysis which allows the direct identification of primary reflections versus multiples.

You do not currently have access to this article.