It is common knowledge to applied geophysicists that, for determining spatially variable electromagnetic properties of the ground, the magnetic method is sensitive to magnetic permeability μ, the ground-penetrating radar method responds to dielectric permittivity ε, and the dc resistivity method provides a good indication of ρ, the electrical resistivity. It is also commonly acknowledged that the electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique responds to electrical conductivity σ. The choice of which variable to report, ρ or its reciprocal σ, is largely a matter of convention decided upon by vocal adherents of the respective methods.

The concept that EMI is simply a means...

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