Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid flow is thought to be controlled by open macrofractures. The movement of fluids in the fractured media results in changes in the pore pressure and consequently causes changes in the effective stress, traction, and elastic properties. Many recent examples in time-lapse or 4D seismic surveys have demonstrated that seismic waves can be used to monitor changes in oil or gas reservoirs as a function of time (e.g., Landrø, 2002; Angerer et al., 2002).

During production from a reservoir, the movement...

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