Nowadays the ancient city of Miletos, called Miletus in Roman times, is known mainly as the home of early Greek philosophers. Its most famous citizen was probably Thales (625∼547 BCE) who taught that water is the origin of all being and who discovered elementary geometrical relations. The schools of Thales, Anaximander, and other Milesian philosophers developed at one of the most attractive and wealthy places on the coast of Asia Minor at that time (lower left of Figure 1).

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One major source of this prosperity was trade in which Miletos took advantage of its location on a peninsula at...

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