Some of the most significant developments in the last 40 years in near-surface geophysics have come from a small core of geophysicists relentlessly working to adapt, engineer, and push existing theory and practice in a direction not previously considered or thought practical. This creativity and tenacity has generally focused on providing solutions to specific problems in a geologically difficult or challenging setting where the economic climate and target depths make a backhoe and auger drill competing technologies.

As the near-surface geophysical technologies matured, they attracted the attention of engineers and hydrologists interested in finding better ways to characterize the shallow...

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