Strong near-surface lateral variations, the lack of a smooth shallow refraction marker, and poor signal-to-noise ratio, can, either alone or in combination, induce residual static problems that affect the seismic result in different ways. These depend on the amplitude and wavelength characteristics of the residual anomalies. In addition, as this article will describe, different types of waves—i.e., compressional or noncompressional—require different statics corrections.

Conventionally, anomalies are said to be “long wavelength” or “short wavelength” when they are longer or shorter than the recording spread. The current paradigm is that:

In-between, medium-range wavelength residuals affect structure definition and signal level. Moreover,...

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