VSP surveys use surface sources and borehole receivers and record both downgoing and upgoing wavefields. Different configurations of VSP surveys are possible and the various types of VSP data sets are valuable to the interpreter in areas where surface seismic data are of limited help.

Common applications of zero-offset VSPs are correlating logs and seismic data, getting information about variations in seismic velocity with depth, and detecting multiples. Offset VSPs are usually recorded where subsurface structures are not well known, or are complex. Their images, which are of higher frequency than surface seismic, are used to obtain structural detail around...

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