Although 3D seismic imaging, based on surface sources and receivers, has been the primary tool used for geophysical reservoir monitoring to date, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) has characteristics that make this technique particularly suitable for time-lapse surveying. In particular, the use of downhole receivers provides some advantages:

With the recent development of multilevel downhole arrays having 50 or more three-component geophones, we now have the capability of recording large 3D VSP surveys in a time-efficient manner. Such surveys generate high-quality and high-fidelity 3D images of the subsurface in the vicinity of the wellbore and provide a powerful tool for time-lapse...

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