Generating seamless 3D seismic data-sets is challenging in urban areas. The quality of the data is often negatively affected by access constraints (densely populated areas, pipelines, drill sites, and other man-made obstructions) that prevent optimal placement of sources and receivers. This results in either data gaps or irregular sampling of the seismic wavefield and this, in turn, means, there is little likelihood of optimum interpretation. To avoid that situation, each element of the 3D seismic exploration program—that is, survey design, data acquisition, processing, and interpretation—has to be especially tuned for such conditions.

This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of an integrated...

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