Prolific gas production originates from the Permian Khuff carbonate reservoirs in the Ain Dar/Shedgum area of Saudi Arabia's giant Ghawar Field. However, well productivity is highly variable due to rapid lateral variations of porosity and permeability, which are mainly controlled by changes in depositional facies and diagenesis.

Within the study area (Figure 1), average well spacing at the Khuff level is on the order of 4 km. Given this sparse control, it is difficult to map interwell variations in reservoir quality from well data alone; this leads to suboptimal infill drilling locations and uncertain reserve estimates. A key...

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