Seismic imaging of carbonate systems is often more complicated than their siliciclastic counterparts. Carbonates sediments typically get cemented very early, and their seismic velocities are normally faster than those of siliciclastic sediments. This reduces the resolution of carbonates in comparison to the clastics when using identical acquisition design. Carbonates are also easily dissoved which may lead to karsting, a phenomenon unique to carbonate rocks. Karst surfaces commonly form highly irregular topography that causes energy dispersion, and makes it difficult to image the sediments or rocks below it.

Our understanding and interpretation of seismic data depend on the ability to correctly...

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