A heterogeneous medium with strong velocity contrast and complex subsurface structures presents a great challenge to seismic imaging. Prestack depth migrations based on the wave equation are accurate but very expensive, thereby limiting their use. However, recent advances in efficient 3D wavefield extrapolators and the continued increase in computing performance are making application of full 3D prestack wave equation depth imaging more affordable. In addition, since PreSDM was first employed for subsalt and carbonate imaging, there have been major advances in efficient and accurate 3D wavefield extrapolation technologies.

The generalized screen propagator (GSP) is a one-way wave-equation-based wide-angle propagator that...

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