Nonseismic methods—such as electromagnetic, induced-polarization, and potential-field surveying techniques—have been the geophysical backbone of mineral exploration for decades. These methods exploit anomalous physical properties of ore deposits (e.g., enhanced conductivity, chargeability, or magnetization) to locate potential targets for drilling. Although well suited to many shallow (< 500 m) exploration problems, the underlying physical principles of these methods impose inescapable limitations on their sensitivity and resolving power at depth. Recent declines in base metal reserves caused by the depletion of known shallow deposits and declining rates of discovery for new deposits underscore the need for geophysical exploration methods that can locate...

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