A major consideration in planning underground excavation of marble is optimization of the rock extraction ratio—the ratio between the volume of the excavated void and the volume of the residual rock left in place as a supporting structure (pillars, long pillars, etc.).

This involves technical, economic, and ecological factors and guaranteeing the stability of voids during extraction of large intact marble blocks. Determination of stability conditions of an underground excavation requires forecasting the stress and deformation response of the rock mass. This can be done by applying mathematical models to the study of the mechanical behavior of a rock mass....

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