Time-lapse seismic monitoring of reservoirs is based on changing seismic response due to fluid saturation, temperature, and pressure changes. The observable changes in seismic response can help locate bypassed oil, water- or gas-flood fronts, and heated zones.

However, there are risks associated with a 4D seismic project including false anomalies caused by acquisition, processing artifacts, and the ambiguity of seismic interpretation in relating seismic changes to reservoir changes. Lumley and Behrens (1998) proposed a four-step feasibility and risk assessment study before undertaking a 4D seismic project. The proposed third step is seismic modeling from sonic and density logs. Our study...

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