Azimuthal AVO (AZAVO) refers to the directional variation of P-wave reflection amplitude at a fixed offset. There are several possible causes for this azimuthal amplitude variation: reservoir property, structural change of the reflector, near-surface effects, overburden property variation, acquisition footprint, processing artifacts, source/receiver radiation/reception patterns, etc. While paying close attention to all these causes is necessary for meaningful azimuthal AVO analysis, geophysicists are most interested in the azimuthal amplitude variation caused by a particular reservoir property: fracturing of the reservoir. A decade of theoretical study and some well-documented case histories have brought widespread acceptance that aligned open fractures will introduce...

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