Airborne magnetic and electromagnetic systems have been very effective over the years for mineral prospecting and in support of petroleum exploration. More recently, these towed-bird systems, operating at sensor altitudes of 30–50 m, have supported environmental investigations. The towed-bird systems can provide regional data for site investigations, such as locating or delimiting the boundaries of waste areas, identifying geologic contacts that influence environmental issues, or mapping saline intrusion. However, these conventional systems cannot provide the resolution required in many environmental and engineering problems because the distance between sensors and target objects is too great. Ground-based surveys are often suitable for...

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