As the geophysical industry enters the 21st century, it is undergoing several fundamental changes. One challenge involves the requirement to perform marine surveys in ways that are less intrusive to the environments in which we operate. Many oil and gas producing areas in shallow water and transition zones remain unsurveyed as a result of environmental restrictions. In the United States the Marine Mammal Protection Act is now raising issues regarding operations of conventional air-gun source vessels. These kinds of challenges are not new to our industry. An early Conoco land vibrator crew made possible a survey in Los Angeles when...

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