During marine seismic acquisition, obtaining complete subsurface coverage may require combining data from different acquisition dates. The time gaps between the overlapping coverage may vary from hours separating subsequent boat passes, to months when large surveys are acquired in sections. Time-lapse data are an extreme example of overlapping data sets acquired at widely varying acquisition dates.

Unfortunately, between the different times of acquisition, changes in physical ocean properties, such as temperature or salinity, can cause variations in water velocity. The result is a dynamic change in recorded traveltimes that makes accurate combination of the data difficult. In shallow water, the...

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