The variation of reflection coefficients with source-to-receiver spacing in mul-tioffset seismic data is known to contain information about the lithology and pore-fluid content of subsurface rocks. However, such analysis is particularly challenging for thin, high-impedance reservoirs. In such instances, a key com-ponent of AVO analysis is a methodol-ogy for response calibration so that fluid properties can be interpreted vertically and laterally away from a borehole with a high degree of confidence.

The use of AVO as a direct hydro-carbon indicator in clastic rocks is based on differences in the response of the compressional-wave (P-wave) velocity (VP) and...

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