The major application of the self potential (SP) method has been in mineral exploration and in recent years increasingly in environmental and engineering investigations. The SP method simply measures a naturally occurring potential between electrodes on the surface or in boreholes. There are three mechanisms that generate self potentials: streaming potentials due to fluid flow, electrochemical potentials generated by concentration differences of electrolytes, and thermoelectric potentials from temperature gradients.

Self potential, SP, and streaming potentials will be used interchangeably as we are only interested in potentials generated from fluid flow in this study. Deformation of groundwater flow by preferential drainage...

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