When it comes to 3D, processing has clearly been lagging behind acquisition, perhaps even to the point of holding back the deployment of this technology. One reason is that computer capacity always had to catch up with increasing survey size and true 3D processing; but the real obstacle was (and still is) the additional degree of complexity associated with azimuth.

Much of our processing experience evolved with 2D data and was later adapted to marine 3D because it is essentially a single-azimuth geometry. Apart for a few true 3D processes (such as poststack migration) most of the sequence is a...

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