Time-lapse data are increasingly used to study production-induced changes in the seismic response of a reservoir as part of a reservoir management program. However, residual differences in the repeated time-lapse data that are independent of changes in the subsurface geology impact the effectiveness of the method. These differences depend on many factors such as signature control, streamer positioning, and recording fidelity differences between the two surveys. Such factors may be regarded as contributing to the time-lapse noise and any effort designed to improve the time-lapse signal-to-noise ratio must address the quantifiable repeatability of the seismic survey.

Although there are counter-examples...

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