Water distribution in the top 1 m of the earth's surface soil layer often controls the success of agricultural crops. In this near-surface zone, large spatial and temporal variations in soil water content are associated with soil heterogeneities, topography, land cover, evapotranspiration, and precipitation. Conventional techniques of measuring soil water content for agricultural purposes—e.g., time domain reflectometry (TDR), neutron probe, or gravimetric techniques, are intrusive and provide information at a point scale only, which is often inadequate for capturing the variations in soil water content with sufficient resolution. Both passive and active remote sensing methods have also been investigated as...

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