Thousands of shallow holes and wells are drilled each year to assist engineers, geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, and other professionals investigate, inspect, and evaluate near-surface geologic conditions that may impact surface structures and/or to gain in-situ subsurface information. Drilling is the litmus test to confirm interpretations made on various scientific data sets applied to petroleum, mining, engineering, and environmental challenges. However, traditional drilling and logging techniques can yield residual inconclusive data for rational assessments because small fractures, washouts, thinly laminated layers, minor casing damage, etc., may be too small for standard logging tools to detect. To close this uncertainty gap, borehole...

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