Suppose we are given several wells in a seismic survey area. Each has a lithological column (or facies log), and sonic and density logs. The lithological section defines a geologic section type—a specific set of target layers with defined thickness, lithology, porosity, presence of hydrocarbons, and so on. The problem is now to predict the geology away from these wells.

This is a problem in seismic pattern recognition, which has been studied for more than 30 years (e.g., Mathieu and Rice, 1969). Given several wells in the seismic survey area, the prediction process follows these steps:

In the past 30...

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