Do seismic air-gun arrays, in routine practice, cause significant and harmful impacts to marine mammals? Biologists, acousticians, geophysicists, and government regulatory technical managers do not agree on a simple and definitive answer. What they do agree about is that there is a lack of data with which to answer that question. Three recent developments should create optimism that those data will soon begin to be collected: (1) new developments in in-field, electronic tagging technology; (2) global interest in the overall issue of sound in the oceans and its effects on marine mammals; and (3) interest from the oil industry to...

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