In the past, survey planning was based mainly on analysis of the acquisition geometry at the surface assuming a symmetric raypath between source and receiver. CMP fold and offset distribution maps were used to compare alternate acquisition geometries. When sources and receivers are at different depths (e.g., for OBS surveys) or when converted waves are considered, this assumption no longer holds, even in a horizontally layered subsurface.

Thus, more advanced methods are required to plan PP- and PS-surveys and to determine their effectiveness by predicting illumination, resolution, and image quality. This article will discuss three more sophisticated techniques:...

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