Millions of acres of land, formerly and currently used for military activities are potentially contaminated by surface and buried unexplored ordnance (UXO). Surface and buried UXO exists at hundreds of sites with diverse geologic and environmental conditions. UXO exists from the surface to depths as great as 10 m and ranges in size from 20-mm projectiles to 2000-lb bombs (Figure 1). UXO cleanup is currently the highest priority U.S. Department of Defense environmental quality issue at Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) sites and Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS). UXO cleanup is also required at active test and training...

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