With the current industry trend toward instrumented oil fields and smart well completions, the permanent deployment of geophones or other acoustic sensors to complement standard engineering gauges is being promoted as a way to map reservoir dynamics. The biggest push is from the time-lapse seismic practitioners, although the deployment of permanent seismic instrumentation is also potentially an ideal route to monitor passive seismicity.

Passive monitoring of acoustic emissions, or small magnitude microearthquakes (microseismicity) associated with stress changes in and around the reservoir, can also be used to image the reservoir dynamics. Passive monitoring has the benefit of more fully utilizing...

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