Conventional large-scale 3-D seismic towed-streamer acquisition systems have had a significant impact on reducing deepwater exploration and production costs. However, the need to better characterize and monitor deepwater reservoirs has led oil companies to seek new ways to reduce the high cost of E&P in these environments. Permanent installations provide information about a reservoir during the production phase to help minimize risk and maximize returns. Characterizing and monitoring reservoirs in real time is one of the major drivers in implementing instrumented oil fields, particularly in deep- and ultradeepwater environments. (Figure 1).

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Over the last several years, industry has...

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