Conventional methods of 3-D survey design concentrate on properties of acquisition geometry such as fold, offset distributions, and azimuth distributions and combinations of these properties such as fold within given offset and/or azimuth ranges. This, in a rough and ready way, enables one to make comparative statements about the relative merits of one design over another but without saying whether either will be good enough for a given target in a given area. This is because the approach neglects the “seismogram component”—i.e., the local earth response. In particular it ignores the characteristics of shot-generated noise that leak through the imperfect...

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