Editor's note: A fuller version of this article can be downloaded in pdf format from the GUMPA project Web site at the following URL - http://www.pet.hw.ac.uk/research/gumpa/index.html

The exploration and production of hydrocarbons are generally accomplished with the aid of 3-D seismic to image reservoir structure and, in some instances, reservoir properties and direct hydrocarbon indicators. Repeated seismic surveys over a period are termed time-lapse seismic (and sometimes 4-D seismic). Changes observed in the seismic character with time have been attributed to impedance changes as a result of production (e.g. Gawith and Gutteridge, 1996). These changes have been used in...

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