Time‐lapse seismic, commonly known as 4-D, can dramatically improve reservoir understanding and ultimate recovery. However, 4-D seismic monitoring is not applicable to all reservoirs and all development strategies. To be a strong candidate for 4-D seismic, a field must have favorable geophysical characteristics and a development plan that produces observable changes in repeat 3-D surveys.

A traditional flow simulator that includes a petrophysical model has the ability to predict “dynamic” reservoir changes and resultant changes in seismic response. This interdisciplinary approach to reservoir modeling blurs the distinction between geophysics and reservoir engineering. This “integrated flow model” is a powerful tool...

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