Horizontal and highly deviated wells have significantly increased the industry's ability to efficiently produce hydrocarbons from formations where recovery otherwise would not be economic. For example, horizontal wells allow access to hydrocarbons in thin, stratigraphic intervals or where they are sandwiched between an expanding gas cap and an active aquifer. The recent introduction of rotary closed loop systems (RCLS) gives drilling and reservoir engineers the ability to design ever more complex directional well paths (the so-called “designer wells”) which can penetrate multiple targets. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) formation evaluation data used to geosteer the drilling assembly enhances resolution of the initial earth...

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