A 4-D study is intended to highlight changes in the reservoir caused by fluid extraction and movement. Other regions within the data should have an unchanged seismic response. In practice, residual seismic signal is normally seen throughout the survey area after differencing. From the perspective of 4-D seismic, this unwanted residual signal can be considered noise; this residual noise can dominate any genuine 4-D signal if unwanted differences exist between each survey and may indicate that the 4-D signal is unreliable.

A key requirement to detect genuine 4-D signals is repeatability; each vintage from a 4-D survey should form a...

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