Seismic monitoring (time-lapse or 4-D seismic) has the potential to significantly increase recovery in existing and new fields. While future field developments should benefit from seismic acquisition designed for time-lapse monitoring, the portfolio of current seismic monitoring opportunities for most companies consists of existing fields for which one or more 3-D surveys have already been acquired. These legacy seismic data sets were not acquired for the purposes of seismic monitoring and are often very different in terms of acquisition and processing parameters. In addition, the seismic acquisition is rarely timed to optimally map reservoir changes or impact development decisions.

Repeatability...

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