Over the last 20 years, the process of measuring and recording a place or position on the surface of the earth has gone through a revolutionary change. There has been a switch from alidades to GPS, from slide rules to pentium computers, from manual to automatic recording and processing of spatial data. The changes include introduction and implementation of two satellite surveying systems (Transit and GPS), transfer of computations to high-speed computers, and processing and graphic presentation of spatial data in real time. Within the GPS domain, techniques have been developed to overcome degradation of the data by the government...

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