The earliest use of geophysics in India can be traced to Colonel William Lambton, who suggested a survey in 1799 which ultimately result-ed in a geodetic network to study the earth's ellipticity. The study of the earth's magnetism began in 1826, and a geomagnetic observatory (only the second in the world) was built in Mumbai in 1847. It was shifted to Alibagh in 1904.

India provided some early and valuable data supporting the concept of isostasy through the work of Archdeacon Pratt in 1852. The earliest published work in seismology was T. Oldham's 1888 Catalogue of Indian Earthquakes from Earliest...

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