This paper discusses a deterministic signature-estimation method for marine seismic data. This method assumes that the direct wave is known and all notionals can be represented as a scaled version of an effective notional.

“Notional” refers to the individual source signatures in a source array (see Ziolkowski et al., 1982). This effective notional is defined so that a modeled direct wave fits the direct wave actually observed.

Signatures observed in reflections are then straightforwardly determined as well as the directivity properties of the acquisition apparatus. This paper focuses on the validity of the basic hypothesis: that the behavior of a...

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