The viscoelastic conversion of kinetic and potential energy into heat is a fundamental aspect of wave propagation. It reduces the amplitude of waves, affects their propagation speed, and deviates their trajectories. Knowing the viscoelastic properties of the Earth, at least, approximately, allows us to improve tomographic images of its near surface and deep interior, distinguish thermal from chemical heterogeneities, better infer the location and characteristics of reservoirs, and produce more accurate predictions of earthquake‐induced ground motion. At much smaller scales, though using identical physics, images of viscoelastic properties, most notably attenuation, aid in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors...

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