On 21 May 2021 a magnitude Mw 6.1 earthquake occurred in Yangbi region, Yunan, China, which was widely felt and caused heavy casualties. Imaging of the source region was conducted using our improved double‐difference tomography method on the huge data set recorded by 107 temporary stations of ChinArray‐I and 62 permanent stations. Pronounced structural heterogeneities across the rupture source region are discovered and locations of the hypocenters of the Yangbi earthquake sequence are significantly improved as the output of the inversion. The relocated Yangbi earthquake sequence is distributed at an unmapped fault that is almost parallel and adjacent (∼15 km distance) to the Tongdian–Weishan fault (TWF) at the northern end of the Red River fault zone. Our high‐resolution 3D velocity models show significant high‐velocity and low‐VP/VS ratios in the upper crust of the rupture zone, suggesting the existence of an asperity for the event. More importantly, low‐VS and high‐VP/VS anomalies below 10 km depth are imaged underlying the source region, indicating the existence of fluids and potential melts at those depths. Upward migration of the fluids and potential melts into the rupture zone could have weakened the locked asperity and triggered the occurrence of the Yangbi earthquake. The triggering effect by upflow fluids could explain why the Yangbi earthquake did not occur at the adjacent TWF where a high‐stress accumulation was expected. We speculate that the fluids and potential melts in the mid‐to‐lower crust might have originated either from crustal channel flow from the southeast Tibet or from local upwelling related to subduction of the Indian slab to the west.

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