Widespread damage and coseismic ground disturbances are generally associated with large magnitude and/or shallow focus earthquakes. Surprisingly, a deep focus (34 km), moderate magnitude earthquake (Mw 6) occurred near the Kopili fault zone in Sonitpur district, Assam, India, on 28 April 2021 and created intense ground shaking and extensive damage along the Brahmaputra Valley. We undertook a field survey within a day after the earthquake and carried out Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis to map any coseismic ground deformation features. Our field survey revealed extensive liquefaction features and several coseismic secondary ground cracks along the alluvial tracts of the Brahmaputra River system. InSAR analysis revealed a sinistral slip up to ∼60 mm along a north‐northwest–south‐southeast‐oriented previously unmapped lineament or fault. Field investigations revealed coseismic hydrological changes including a sudden rise and fall in the water level by 0.3–0.5 m followed by the injection of sand materials up to a thickness of 1.25 m in dug wells and the appearance of water in seasonally dried river channels and ponds. Interferometric coherence analysis during pre‐, co‐, and postseismic periods further confirmed the coseismic surge in water at five major tributary rivers of the Brahmaputra River. We speculate that the pressure difference at the shallow unconfined aquifer system of the mountain‐front alluvial fan induced by coseismic stresses must have caused channeling of groundwater to the rivers and the contemporaneous water level fluctuations in wells. Amplification of seismic waves at the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary strata of the Brahmaputra Valley could have enhanced the extensive damage due to the 2021 Sonitpur earthquake. The present study has implications in estimating damage potential along the Brahmaputra Valley for future earthquakes.

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